It does not pretend to be exhaustive, but aims to give broad direction, some definitions, and a starting point for those with little experience of statistical methods. Statistical Methods for Quality Control 5 fies the scale of measurement for the variable of interest. Trochim is a Professor in the Department of Policy Analysis and Management at Cornell University. statistics within the general field of scientific inquiry, and we introduce some of the vocabulary and notation that are necessary for the statistical methods that follow. and the past statistics that can be used for the relative frequency method are unavailable. Such forecasting techniques are beyond the scope of this discussion. Having listed the methods in the above table, you should justify why you used such methods and the guiding principles for using those methods. Statistical Methods, Third Edition, provides students with a working introduction to statistical methods offering a wide range of applications that emphasize the quantitative skills useful across many academic disciplines. Standards for statistical methods, tools and techniques ANNEX A 1 BSI Technical Committee SS/1, Statistical Terminology and Symbols 1. a) significant variables are tested within important range. STATISTICAL METHODS IN BIOLOGY Download Statistical Methods In Biology ebook PDF or Read Online books in PDF, EPUB, and Mobi Format. 1963 Acrobat 7 Pdf 21. Course preliminaries and overview 1 Lecture 2. When a test fails to meet its specifications, the initial response is to conduct a. Scales and "data assumptions" 2 2. Large sample test based on Normal distribution for single mean and difference of means – Tests based on t, c 2 and F distributions for testing means and variances – Contingency table (Test for Independency) – Goodness of fit. Social sciences—Statistical methods—Data processing. About the Methods and Statistics in Social Sciences Specialization Identify interesting questions, analyze data sets, and correctly interpret results to make solid, evidence-based decisions. (4671 views) Statistics - Wikibooks, 2013 Statistics is used in almost every field of research. About This Product. Statistical methods for population-based cancer survival analysis Computing notes and exercises Paul W. is thus to provide a brief tour of the statistical terrain by introducing concepts and issues important to GAO's work, illustrating the use of a variety of statistical methods, discussing factors that influence the choice of methods, and offering some advice on how to avoid pitfalls in the analysis of quantitative data. In truth, a better title for the course is Experimental Design and Analysis, and that is the title of this book. If you already have a well-established, manual statistics gathering procedure then you might prefer to use that instead. Most usually this is done by method validation (see Chapter 7) and/or by keeping control charts, which is basically the collection of analytical results from one or more control samples in each batch (see Chapter 8). Such forecasting techniques are beyond the scope of this discussion. MIT OpenCourseWare is a free & open publication of material from thousands of MIT courses, covering the entire MIT curriculum. You can conduct surveys for reptiles, insects (ants, butterflies), rodents, raptors, etc. It is also. Silverman School of Mathematics University of Bath, UK Table of Contents INTRODUCTION What is density estimation? Density estimates in the exploration and presentation of data Further reading SURVEY OF EXISTING METHODS Introduction Histograms The naive estimator The kernel estimator. acteristics because almost all methods described below assume nor-mality. In the fourth chapter, the fundamentals of descriptive statistics, the neces-sary basis for the data processed. Analyzing Health Care Costs 3 incomplete, and biased estimate of the impact of covariates on the untransformed scale, which is usually the scale of ultimate interest. subject of statistics 1. Errors in invoices are a major cause of unpaid bills and customer dissatisfaction for the organization. You have also seen that the proper and optimal use of statistical methods and statistical thinking. Least squares, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian approaches to statistical inference are treated. Statistical methods are invariably needed, however, in order to extract meaningful information from experimental data. If this assumption is violated (i. This text takes a classic approach that emphasizes concepts and techniques for working out problems and intepreting results. Kulkarni and Gilbert Harman February 20, 2011 Abstract In this article, we provide a tutorial overview of some aspects of statistical learning theory, which also goes by other names such as statistical pattern recognition, nonparametric classi cation and estimation, and supervised learning. = g 1(µ)= µ µ1. These properties have been developed by Laplace (1818), Bickel and Yahav (1969), and Ibragimov and Has- minskii (1981), among others. Statistics Using R with Biological Examples Kim Seefeld, MS, M. Whereas “proper” statistical methodology for testing causality exists, such as designed experiments or spe-cialized causal inference methods for observational data [e. When a statistical methods paper is submitted to a journal for publication, examples in which the method is applied to real data are highly encouraged by many journals and in some cases are explicitly demanded. Michael Steele Department of Statistics, Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania 447 Huntsman Hall, 3730 Walnut Street Philadelphia PA 19104-3603 [email protected] In Chapter 2, we discuss how to describe data, using graphical and summary statistics. Non-Probability Sampling Methods. the meanings and derivations of statistics (and have some reluctance to do so) until they have mastered the computational details. Mandrekar, Ph. time with greater precision. Learn more. The foundation for Statistical Process Control was laid by Dr. Course includes topics from natural language processing (NLP), such as identifying parts of speech, parsing sentences (e. Instead, investigate the data Alternative Statistical. The -rst chapter de-ned the very concept of probability, we deal with here its basic operations. Statistical methods are used along with the numerical weather prediction. The –rst chapter de–ned the very concept of probability, we deal with here its basic operations. At the back of the book there is a glossary to help the reader become familiar with the terminology used in analytical method validation. basis for developing novel inference methods when faced with a new situation B. This year’s Statistical Review introduces two changes in how oil and gas are reported in energy units. This text takes a classic approach that emphasizes concepts and techniques for working out problems and intepreting results. double-blind technique is applicable, however, an envelope method or method of allocation by telephone may be used. Statistical Methods in Diagnostic Medicine using SAS® Software Jay N. The guide aims to consolidate the information required for you to complete the survey process from design to reporting. From the statistical perspec-tive, the general procedure of dimensional analysis can be speciﬁed as follows: Step 1. es Página 2 Although some analyses can easily be performed by hand when a data set is small, more complex models literally require the use of computer programs. Methods of Formation of Theory Deduction: It is one of the important methods employed in theory building. You can use descriptive statistical methods to transform raw observations into information that you can understand and share. The foundation for Statistical Process Control was laid by Dr. Pearson argued that statistical methods can offer us deep insights into the nature of reality. Snedecor founded and was the director of the Statistical Laboratory at Iowa State and later served as the president of the American Statistical Association. "Data analysis is the process of bringing order, structure and meaning to the mass of collected data. Hence, the usual point of view is that the sample size is the determined function of variability, statistical method, power and difference sought. Statistics and Probability Problems with Answers - sample 2: probability, counting, mean and standard deviation, mean of grouped data (frequency table) and weighted mean. 9 pdf f(x) of X. New York, NY: Springer, 2008. 1) it is not necessary for the functions fk to be linearly in x – all that is needed is that y is to be a linear combination of these functions. Can, or should, psychological research be objective? This introduction to the research methods used in psychology begins with how the confluence of psychologists’ conceptual, logical, meta-theoretical, theoretical, and statistical skills serves to. 2 z Scores 47 4. Course Description 515-Statistical Methods I. GEOINFORMATICS – Vol. This process is known as Classification and Tabulation. Qualitative data analysis is a search for general statements about relationships among categories of data. SPSS ( Computer ﬁle). This glossary drew from several sources, which are listed at the end of this document. Why Statistics Are • A simple, visual method of keeping track of product quality • You plot mean and SD results (or. Non-random sampling is widely used as a case selection method in qualitative research, or for quantitative studies of an exploratory nature where random sampling is too costly, or where it is the only feasible alternative. 7, 1/4/05 ) Code: analysis-quant Daniel K. for experimental Or statistical research. (1993) Statistical Theory. If the model is not believable, remedial action must be taken. edu) Research Assistant Professor Children's Oncology Group Statistics & Data Center Department of Biostatistics Colleges of Medicine and Public Health & Health Professions Outline of Topics I. Statistical Methods for Astronomy Eric D. iStudy would like to acknowledge Jackie Ritzko for revising the content of this tutorial. 1 Motivation: Examples and Applications 1. As you will see, both types of reader will be asked to plan an actual research project in some detail. It is also. Mandrekar, Ph. Quantitative Data Analysis Methods. For the social sciences, education, anthropology and psychology, human nature is a lot more complex than just a simple yes or no response. Snedecor founded and was the director of the Statistical Laboratory at Iowa State and later served as the president of the American Statistical Association. These ideas are applicable to crystals and magnets, superconductors and solutions, surfaces and even bottles of light. It does not pretend to be exhaustive, but aims to give broad direction, some definitions, and a starting point for those with little experience of statistical methods. This second edition of Statistical Methods for Food Science provides a source text on accessible statistical procedures for the food scientist, and is aimed at professionals and students in food laboratories where analytical, instrumental and sensory data are gathered and require some form of summary and analysis before interpretation. Slud, Statistics Program, Mathematics Dept. For example, a primary use of DSP is to reduce interference, noise, and other undesirable components in acquired data. 2 Data science and statistical methods for big data The term \data science" arose in the eld of computer science. To do so is sort of like the statistical equivalent of running with scissors. This chapter was written with the expectation that you have taken courses at the undergraduate level that address both research methods and statistics. ADA is a class in statistical methodology: its aim is to get students to under-stand something of the range of modern1 methods of data analysis, and of the considerations which go into choosing the right method for the job at hand (rather than distorting the problem to t the methods you happen to know). understanding of statistics is essential in understanding new technology, world affairs, and the ever-expanding volume of knowledge. Corner Jeremy M. Silverman School of Mathematics University of Bath, UK Table of Contents INTRODUCTION What is density estimation? Density estimates in the exploration and presentation of data Further reading SURVEY OF EXISTING METHODS Introduction Histograms The naive estimator The kernel estimator. Once a summary. you can legally download a copy of the book in pdf format from the authors website! Direct download (First discovered on the "one R tip a day" blog) Statistics (Probability and Data Analysis) - a wikibook. Module 1 / Research Methods and Dissertations 1/2 Edinburgh Business School Research Methods for Business and Management and the second a Practitioner – someone whose programme doesn’t carry this stipulation. Quantitative research design also tends to generate only proved or unproven results, with there being very little room for grey areas and uncertainty. First describe and present your data, e. Quantitative Data Analysis Methods. THE SAMPLING DISTRIBUTION Weconsiderprobabilitysamples, settingasideresponsebiasandnon-response bias. Statistical Test Flow Chart Geo 441: Quantitative Methods Group Comparison and Association Normal Interval or -+ Normality Tes Ratio Data One group Compare two group Compare more tha two groups Association between Variance known Variance unknown Non-paired. 196 Determining the Sample Size manipulate is the sample size. monte carlo statistical methods pdf contents have changed drastically from Monte Carlo Statistical mobile pdf android mf7247 pdf Methods, even though the. An Alternative Method of Computing Probability of Group Membership. Social sciences—Statistical methods—Computer programs. Only a small fraction of the myriad statistical analytic methods are covered in this book, but. point of a statistics course. single lab, # tests, etc) •Still must consider fitness for purpose and how the method is applied –e. 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Be sure to tie it to your objectives and target species! •Note any interesting observations •“Saw a bobcat and kitten at brushpile #2” •“1st robins of the year-approx 200” (w/ date) •“Saw quail covey near prickly pear. Elementary Statistical Methods. EXPLORATORY DATA ANALYSIS 133 dence are as well established as the rules of statistical inference. A "statistic" is a numerical value that describes some property of a data set. Statistical methods are. A First Course in Bayesian Statistical Methods (Springer Texts in Statistics) An Introduction to Statistical Learning: with Applications in R (Springer Texts in Statistics) Statistics and Data Analysis for Financial Engineering: with R examples (Springer Texts in Statistics) The Elements of Statistical. AA degree-seeking students: STA2023, Statistical Methods I, is one of the college level mathematics courses that may be used to satisfy graduation requirements from MDC with an AA degree. This will demonstrate that a working knowledge of statistics is essential for successfully working through a predictive modeling problem. Random variables are the mathematical constructusedto build modelsof suchvariability. The book discusses the basics of statistics, discussing topics such as average, arithmetic mean, median, probability and types of distributions. 2 Variances (F-test, Levene Test) 6. Statistics are simply objective and systematic methods for describing and interpreting information so that you may make the most informed decisions about life. docx Author: Helen Yang Created Date: 6/4/2009 11:56:03 AM. 354006 25 25 30 25 seS = + = + = We find that, again, both methods are equivalent, and this is because both methods account for the different sample sizes in exactly the same way, the denominator of the squared terms. Quantitative data collection methods are based on random sampling and structured data collection instruments. 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Com – a website helps student to Knowledge about Agriculture, Books, News related to Agriculture sector, Jobs, Ask anything about Agriculture, Interviews of Toppers & achieved peoples, Events (Seminar, Workshop), Company & College Detail and Exam notification. Shop for electronics, apparels & more using our Flipkart app Free shipping & COD. 07 To evaluate internal control, the auditor identifies and understands the relevant controls and tests their effectiveness. a special method, can make changes and can distribute modiﬁcations to col-leagues. Mandrekar, Ph. These ideas are applicable to crystals and magnets, superconductors and solutions, surfaces and even bottles of light. Schneider, TECFA, University of Geneva Menu 1. Example: How CBO’s January 1999 Revenue Projection Was Adjusted for Subsequent Legislation 5 2. That article. Division of Biostatistics, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN ABSTRACT An important goal in diagnostic medicine research is to estimate and compare the accuracies of diagnostic tests, which serve. If the model is not believable, remedial action must be taken. Collect (Produce Data): design and implement a plan to collect appropriate data. The purpose of this book is to acquaint the reader with the increasing number of applications of statistics in engineering and the applied sciences. Statistics is the discipline that concerns the collection, organization, displaying, analysis, interpretation and presentation of data. Indeed, without good approaches for data quality assessment statistical institutes are working in the blind and can. Parham Patricia Barrientos* Stephen P. sizes make documentation of trends more difficult. of statistical methods. 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In statistical modeling, regression analysis is a set of statistical processes for estimating the relationships between a dependent variable (often called the 'outcome variable') and one or more independent variables (often called 'predictors', 'covariates', or 'features'). Robert and G. Historically, the techniques of statistical mechanics proved to be a crucial tool for understanding the deeper laws of physics. Decide on a prior distribution, which quantiﬁ es the uncertainty in the values of the unknown model parameters before the data are observed. This model learns directly a phrase-level alignment of the parallel corpus. Statistical methods use the past records of weather data on the assumption that future will be a repetition of the past weather. The principle of statistical analysis 5 3. An introduction to statistical data analysis (Summer 2014) But for the kinds of methods used in linguistics, you are (PDF), also called distribution function. These can then be used as input to test the various statistical techniques. Materials in this Web site are tailored to help you make better decisions and to get you thinking statistically. 1 In the light of continuing debate over the applications of significance testing in psychology journals. Mathematical Modeling and Statistical Methods for Risk Management Lecture Notes c Henrik Hult and Filip Lindskog 2007. overview of research methods Research Methods= the ways we collect data to answer a research question data collection techniques including how we get respondents, how we ask questions, role of. Welcome! This is one of over 2,200 courses on OCW. They are part of a suite of mathematics qualifications offered by Pearson. : MULTIVARIATE STATISTICAL METHODS FOR MODELING AND ANALYSIS OF WAFER PROBE TEST DATA 525 Fig. Key Idea: Statistical methods can be used to tell us whether researcher intervention is a reasonable explanation for changes in a response. 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Statistical Methods in Hydrology 5c. a variable is not normally distributed) it can have an e ect on the statistical results (resulting in signi cance when in reality it is not signi cant, or not resulting in statistical signi cance when it is signi cant). Snedecor founded and was the director of the Statistical Laboratory at Iowa State and later served as the president of the American Statistical Association. A voluntary sample is made up of people who self-select into the survey. If the sample size is too small, even a well conducted study may fail to detect important effects. These files are intended to help describe how to undertake analyses introduced as examples in the first 13 chapters of the Third Edition of the Statistical Sleuth: A Course in Methods of Data Analysis (2013), the excellent text by Fred Ramsey and Dan Schafer. Additional courses are: MAC1105, MGF1106 or MGF1107 depending on your major and the institution to which you are planning to transfer. What people are saying - Write a review. iStudy would like to acknowledge Jackie Ritzko for revising the content of this tutorial. By deduction, is meant reasoning or inference from. This international journal fosters the development of statistical methodology and its applications in biological, demographic, economic, health, physical, social, and other scientific domains. The basic idea behind density-based clustering approach is derived from a human intuitive clustering method. Therefore, if we take a coin and toss it 10 times, we will expect five heads and five tails. Example: How CBO’s January 1999 Revenue Projection Was Adjusted for Subsequent Legislation 5 2. methods presented in this chapter are those that are approved by groups such as the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) and the American Public Health Association (APHA). certain techniques and procedures that guide them in gathering and analyzing data related to their research questions and hypothesis. Our method produces Monte Carlo samples that are remarkably close to the uniform distribution. Mandrekar, Ph. For example, a tester could randomly select 5 inputs to a test case from the population of all. AUTHOR(S) Leo R. “Statistical Methods for Geography is a systematic introduction to the essential techniques that all students must understand to complete a module in s Skip to main content Menu. It is hoped that the humble effort made in the form of this book will assist in the accomplishment of exploratory as well as result-oriented research studies. A First Course in Bayesian Statistical Methods (Springer Texts in Statistics) An Introduction to Statistical Learning: with Applications in R (Springer Texts in Statistics) Statistics and Data Analysis for Financial Engineering: with R examples (Springer Texts in Statistics) The Elements of Statistical. Wilson This broad text provides a complete overview of most standard statistical methods, including multiple regression, analysis of variance, experimental design, and sampling techniques. This guide is the latest in a series on sampling. Use the following flow chart to help you decide which statistic to use. Download link. In applying statistics to a scientific, industrial, or social problem, it is conventional to begin with a statistical population or a statistical model to be studied. Input of data into computer. This revised and expanded text is intended to help students understand and communicate what their data sets have to say, or to make sense of the scientific literature in meteorology, climatology, and related disciplines. role of chance in order to ensure validity. pdf - Free download Ebook, Handbook, Textbook, User Guide PDF files on the internet quickly and easily. Statistics Using R with Biological Examples Kim Seefeld, MS, M. He also wrote the book, Statistical Methods. 1) it is not necessary for the functions fk to be linearly in x – all that is needed is that y is to be a linear combination of these functions. A statistical model is a probability distribution constructed to enable infer- ences to be drawn or decisions made from data. Quantitative data analysis is helpful in evaluation because it provides quantifiable and easy to understand results. Hence, the usual point of view is that the sample size is the determined function of variability, statistical method, power and difference sought. Here are two contrasting definitions of what statistics is, from eminent professors in the field, some 60+ years apart: "Statistics is the branch of scientific method which deals with the data obtained by counting or. ) (Author: P. Northwestern University. Chenevix (phrenologist), 1828. The mixing of data types,. Parametric and non-parametric statistical methods for the life sciences - Session I Liesbeth Bruckers Geert Molenberghs Interuniversity Institute for Biostatistics and statistical Bioinformatics (I-Biostat) Universiteit Hasselt June 7, 2011 June 6, 2011 Doctoral School Medicine. Basic statistical concepts and methods for earth scientists By Ricardo A. Weather forecasts, market reports, costs of living indexes, and the results of public opinion are some other examples. Jogesh, The Annals of Statistics, 1984 On Resampling Methods for Variance and Bias Estimation in Linear Models Shao, Jun, The Annals of Statistics, 1988. Random variables are the mathematical constructusedto build modelsof suchvariability. d Even when statistical methods are appropriate, the statistical presentation of results is often poor or does not conform to our house style. Research Methods, Measurement, and Basic Statistics Intro Psychology Georgia Tech Instructor: Dr. We recommend that you have books. This Statistics preparation material will cover the important concepts of Statistics syllabus. 2 Variance (Chi -squared Test) 6. In truth, a better title for the course is Experimental Design and Analysis, and that is the title of this book. Examples include: SA1 CD 4 counts of 100 AIDS patients on January 1, 1996. ) (Author: P. Overview on statistical methods and coefficients 11 6. Introduction: A Common Language for Researchers Research in the social sciences is a diverse topic. Mathematical and statistical sciences have much to give to data mining management and analysis. Agresti Finlay Statistical Methods Answer Ml36079New PDF Books Author: es7. Stehouwer, The Upjohn Co. 4 gives an introduction. Cherkauer Revised March 8 th, Statistics Notes 3 The PDF is. Christopher Rhoads. WHAT STATISTICAL TEST DO I NEED? Deciding on appropriate statistical methods for your research: What is your research question? Which variables will help you answer your research question and which is the dependent variable?. (2005) by C. The principle of statistical analysis 5 3. Wilson This broad text provides a complete overview of most standard statistical methods, including multiple regression, analysis of variance, experimental design, and sampling techniques. This text was developed as the course notes for the course Fundamental Statistical Concepts in Presenting Data; Principles for Constructing Better Graphics, as presented by Rafe Donahue at the Joint Statistical Meetings (JSM) in Denver, Colorado in August 2008 and for a follow-up course as. Part V pointed out the prevalence of uncertainty in real environments. get Agresti Finlay Statistical Methods Answer Ml36079New 2020 in simple step and you can get. Interpreting the cause of a trend requires knowledge of hydrologic processes, land use, and human. Department of Economics and Statistics Karlstad University Lecture-notes for Mathematical Methods for course NEGB13, Microeconomics B Spring 2012 Katarina Katz, Department of Economics and Statistics, Karlstad University, Universitetsgatan 2, 651 88 Karlstad Tel. understanding of statistics is essential in understanding new technology, world affairs, and the ever-expanding volume of knowledge. This book not only guides social scientists through different tests, but also provides students and. Decide on a prior distribution, which quantiﬁ es the uncertainty in the values of the unknown model parameters before the data are observed. Scanned by artmisa using Canon DR2580C + flatbed. Multivariate Statistics: Concepts, Models, and. This is particularly instructive in conjunction with the Monte Carlo method (Chapter 3), which allows one to generate simulated data sets with known properties. e, and so statistical mec hanics based on classical the-ory giv es qualitativ ely wrong predictions of v ap or pressures and equilibrium constan ts, whic hw as cleared up only b y quan tum theory in whic h the in terc hange of iden tical particles is not a real ev en t". In manual data. Statistical terms will play an increasingly important role throughout your college career. Several methods are available to analyze qualitative data. Use the August Temperatures to create a histogram with a bin width of five, starting at 60, describe its distribution. Foreword - Robert K. Gordon Cynthia L. In 25 libraries. We expect that the reader will have had at least one elementary course in statistics, covering basic topics including linear regression. you can legally download a copy of the book in pdf format from the authors website! Direct download (First discovered on the “one R tip a day” blog) Statistics (Probability and Data Analysis) – a wikibook. Statistical Methods Applied in Physics Bo Yuan. DBSCAN is a partitioning method that has been introduced in Ester et al. Statistical Methods S. • Method errors (e. This creates a copy of the HTML page in PDF format. Fundamentals of Mathematical Statistics is a comprehensive book for undergraduate mathematicians. Statistical Problems in Marketing Contact Information 401H Bridge Hall Data Sciences and Operations Department University of Southern California. The book presents an introduction to statistical methods for students majoring in social science disciplines. Introduction to Statistical Methods in Economics. Ideally, it will serve as a reference which will help scientists and engineers design their own experiments and carry out the appropriate analyses when a statistician is not available to help. Learn Statistical Methods Health Munro with free interactive flashcards. New York, NY: Springer, 2008. The actual choice of a speciﬁc sample can be done using a random number generator on a computer. Statistics Using R with Biological Examples Kim Seefeld, MS, M. Statistical Methods in Psychology Journals: Guidelines and Explanations Leland Wilkinson and Task Force on Statistical Inference APA Board of Scientific Affairs1. This Statistics preparation material will cover the important concepts of Statistics syllabus. It contains chapters discussing all the basic concepts of Statistics with suitable examples. Each potential sampling point has a non-zero probability of being selected; 2. in that document on the use of statistical methods in proficiency testing. The Statistical Methods class will present techniques and inference procedures with an emphasis on applications, statistics implementation and interpretation of results. Jogesh Babu2 1 Department of Astronomy & Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, Univer-sity Park PA 16802 USA 2 Department ofStatistics, Pennsylvania StateUniversity, University Park PA,16802, USA 3 Center for Astrostatistics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park PA. expressed in qualitative form, statistical methods can be used. The principle of statistical analysis 5 3. Michael Steele Department of Statistics, Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania 447 Huntsman Hall, 3730 Walnut Street Philadelphia PA 19104-3603 [email protected] Selecting the most appropriate statistics to describe your data. Typically, the first step to any data analysis is to plot the data. We live in a time of unprecedented access to informationdata.